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  • H/C ratio lower than crude oil
  • Solid/ semi solid – not easy to handle/ to use as fuel
  • High sulfur; S and/ or nitrogen; N – extensive processing
  • Possible to change to liquid/ gases fuels – must undergoing lengthy and extensive process: expensive
  • Alternative/ possible energy and chemical sources
  • Complex carbonaceous materials

// Other Raw Material – Coal

  • Originated from plant remain in prehistoric period
  • Important coal rank;
    • anthracite
    • bituminous coal
    • sub- bituminous coal
    • Lignite
  • Combustible rock
  • Organic heterogeneous plus inorganic compounds
  • 1973 war; Oil price rose – hence extensive research on changing coal to liquid gasification

Oil shale  is a sedimentary rock containing organic matter rich in hydrogen, known as kerogen Estonian oil shale:

C10 H15.2 O0.93 S0.08 N0.03

Oil shales of different deposits differ by, for example, genesis, composition, calorific value and oil yield

Oil shale also contains mineral matter. In Estonian oil shale carbonates and sandy-clayey minerals

// Other Raw Material – Shale Oil

  • Low permeable rock
  • Made of inorganic material interspersed (mixed together/ spread/ combine) with high molecular weight (MW) organic substance called kerogen
  • Q: What is retorting process?
    • A : A process of heating oil shale to produce shale oil, shale gas and spent shale

// Oil Shale Oil Retorting Process

// Other Raw Materials- Tar Sand (Oil Sand)

  • Large deposits of sand saturated with bitumen and water
  • Commonly found at or near the earth’s surface
  • Western Canada is the largest producer- produce 99% Canada’s crude oil
  • Difficult to handle – summer: soft, sticky
    • winter: hard, solid material
  • Bitumen derived from the oil sands deposits in Alberta, Canada areas has an API gravity of around 8o API. It is upgraded to an API gravity of 31oAPI to 33o API. The upgraded oil is known as synthetic crude.

// Other Raw Materials- Gas Hydrates

  • Ice-like material; constituted of methane molecule encaged in cluster of water molecules and held together by hydrogen; H bond
  • This material occurs in large underground deposits found beneath the ocean floor on continental margins and in places north of the arctic circle such as Siberia.
  • It is estimated that gas hydrate deposits contain twice as much carbon as all other fossil fuels on earth.
  • If proven feasible for recovery, could be a future energy as well as chemical source for petrochemicals.
  • A solid material only under high pressure and low temperature; hence it cannot be processed by conventional methods used for natural gas and crude oils.